Saturday , June 19 2021

The Twin Supernova opens up new possibilities of dry kinesiology



Brahman specialists have found a way to reproduce Health Measuring the distance of a supernova explosion – one of them a real and real tool for studying the mysterious black energy that makes the universe grow faster and faster. The collaboration of the nearby Supernova plant (SNfactory), led by Greg Eldering of the Energy Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Laboratory), enables scientists to study dark energy with dramatically improved accuracy and precision. Providing far-distance technology. Time and time again. The results will also be the focus of the next major kinetic experiment that will use new land and space telescopes to test alternatives to heavy energy.

Two papers have been published Journal of Astrophysics They reported on the results, with Cali Boone as a lead author. Currently, I am a Post-Doctoral Fellow University of WashingtonBoone, a former Nobel Laureate graduate student at Saul Perlmutter, is the lead scientist at the Berkeley Laboratory and the UC Berkeley Leader who led one of the teams that actually discovered kinetic energy. Perlmutter was also a co-author on both studies.

Supernovae were used to discover surprisingly dry in 1998 that the universe was expanding rapidly, not as slow as expected. This rapid progress – making up about two-thirds of the energy in the entire universe – has been confirmed by various independent technologies and more detailed supernova studies.

The discovery of dark energy depends on the use of a particular class of supernovae, type 1. These supernovae always look for the same inner maximum brightness. As the maximum brightness of the observation supernovae is used to calculate the distance, however, the differences in the smallest differences limit the accuracy of the low energy in the differences that can be tested. Despite improvements in 20 years by many groups, the study of dark energy supernovae has been limited to these differences so far.

The two springs are spiracova

The upper left image shows both supernova specs. One is close and the other is far away. In order to measure dark energy, scientists need to measure the distance between them a lot, but how do they know they are the same? The following image contrasts with the picture – showing that they are actually “twin”. That means their intervals of measurement can be measured with accuracy of 3%. The brightest point in the center of the image is the NGC 4526 ۾ 1994D Hubble Space Telescope (SN1994D). Credit: Graphics: Zoya Rostomin / Berkeley Lab; Image: NASA / European Space Agency

Double the number of supernovae

The new results announced by SNfactory came entirely from the annual study, which was devoted entirely to improving the accuracy of supernovae-generated kinetic measurements. Measuring dark energy requires more light compared to the super-Nova, which is billions of light-years away from nearby Saturnova, “only” 300 million light years away. The team studied the supernova near hundreds in great detail. Each supernova is measured over several days, with several days measured. Examining each supernova spectrometer, the magnitude of the full wavelength of VV light depends on the intensity. A specially designed instrument for this research, the Supernova Integrated Field Spectrometer, installed on the Monica’s Air M2.2 telescope, was used to measure the spectrum.

“We always have the idea that if the physics of two supernova explosions are the same, their maximum brightness will be the same. During a supernova explosion, using a CT scan of a nearby supernova factory spectrum type, we would have that idea. To be able to test them, “Perlmutter said.

In fact, a few years ago, physiologist Hanna Fakhuri, who was then a graduate student working with Perlmut, came to the forefront of today’s findings. Looking at the multitude of spectra captured by the SN faculty, I found that in a large number of cases the spectra of the two different supernovae looked very similar. Of the 50 or so supernovae, some were almost identical parts. When the abdominal orifice area is installed, the eyes will be the only path. The present analysis relies on observations to model the supernova’s behavior at periods that are close to their maximum illumination time.

This new work had doubled the number of supernovae used in the analysis. This model is enough to apply the machine learning machines to identify these new sisters today, it is discovered that the Jia Supernova type of splitter is unique in only three ways the internal brightness of the supernova is also basically the difference of these three observations. Depends on, making it possible to have a supernova distance of about 3% accuracy.

It is equally important that this new method does not experience prejudice in the old method, while comparing supernovae found in different galaxies. Because galaxies near distances are somewhat different from galaxies, there is a strong concern that this dependence could be a result of misreading in the measurement of dark energy. This concern can now greatly reduce the size of the super Nova with this new technique.

In describing this work, Boone notes that “traditional supernova distances use light curves – the image is captured in many colors as the supernova light will fade and fade. Instead, we used spectrum from each supernova. It is much more detailed, and with machine learning techniques, it is possible to see complex behaviors that are important for more accurate distance measurement. “

The results of the Bone Paper will inform the next two major experiments. The first experiment will be performed on the 8.4-meter-long Rubin Observatory, which is based in Chile, a joint venture between the Space and Time Heritage Survey, the Energy Department and the National Science Foundation. The other is NASANext up is the Roman Nancy Grace telescope. Telescopes will measure thousands of supernovae to improve heavy energy measurement. They will be able to compare their results using the measurement methods.

Eldering, who is also the co-author of the paper, notes, “This distance measurement technique is not only more accurate, but only requires a spectrum, which is captured when the supernova is bright and easy to notice. – There are areas, especially values ​​where errors are found and the need for independent verification is high.

SNfactory collaborations include Berkeley Laboratory, Laboratory Atomic and High Energy Physics at Sorbonne, Astronomy Research Center in Lyon, and Institute of Physics for Infinity 2, at Claude Bernard University. Yale UniversityHumboldt University of Germany, Max Planck Institute of Stratified Physics, Tsinghua China University, Center for Physics with Physics, Marseille, and Claremont-Auvergne University.

This work was supported by the Office of Science of the Energy Department, SEO and NASA’s Gordon, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation of Physics, the French National Institute of Nuclear and Park Physics, and the French National Institute of Earth and Astronomy Center for Scientific Research. Collaborated. German Research Foundation, German Space Center, European Research Council, Tsinghua University and Chinese National Foundation for Natural Sciences.

Supernova SN 2011fe

Example of Supernova: Palomar SN 2011fe Temporary Factory Discovered on August 24, 2011 in the Panvel Galaxy near the Big Dipper. Credit: BJ Fallon, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

Extra background

In 1998 Supernova, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the Supernova Search Team, two competing groups of studies, announced that they had found evidence that, contrary to expectations, the universe was not diminishing but growing faster and faster. Darkness is the term used to describe the reason for accelerating energy. The 2011 Nobel Prize was given to two team leaders: Saul Perlmutter of Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, project leader at Supernova Cosmology, and Brian Schmidt. Australia National University Adams Reese of Johns Hopkins from the HighZid team.

Additional techniques for measuring heavy energy include the energy-supported energy spectroscopy tool, led by Burke Lab, which uses spectroscopy at 30 million galaxies in a technology called atomic baron oscillations. Rubin will also use another lens, called a weak gravity lens.

Reference:

“Type 1 supernova inclusion. I. Spectrum variation in maximum light” Boone, G. Aldering, P. Intelegos, C. Organ, S. Bailey, C. Balti, S. Bondard, and C. Bennett, Yu. Coupon, S. Dixon, D. Fuchs, A.A. Gangler, R. Gupta, B. Hayden, W. Hildebrand, A.J. Kim, M. Kowalski, D. Kosters, P.O. Leavitt, F. Mawson, J.A. Noordin, R. Pannan, A. Pikotal, R. Pereira, S. Perlmutter, K. A. Pounder, D. Rabinowitz, M. Rugglet, D. Rubin, K. Runge, C. Saunders, J., et al. Samadja, n. Suzuki, C. Tau, S.K. Tobinberger, R. C. Thomas and M. Vincenzi, May 6, 2021; Journal of AstrophysicsGeneral Chat Chat Lounge
DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / abec3c

“Type 1 Supernova Twin Involvement. II. Improving Cosmic Distance Estimation” Boone, J. Ellington, B. Intelegos, C. Organ, S. Bailey, C. Paltee, S. Bongard, C. Boutin, Y. Cobain, S.W. Dickson Fuchs, A. Gangliar, R. Gupta, B. Hayden, D. Hildebrand, A. J. Kim, M. Kowalski, D. Koster, P. Leavitt, F. Monson, G. Norden, R. Pawan, A. Pikotal, R. Pereira, S. Perlmutter , K. A. Pounder, D. Rabinowitz, M. Rugoldt, D. Rubin, K. Runge, C. Saunders, G. Asmaduja, N. Suzuki, C. Tau, S. Tobinberger, R. C. Thomas and M. Vincenzi, 6 May 2021, Journal of AstrophysicsGeneral Chat Chat Lounge
DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / abec3b




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