The diabetes It has become a public health problem in the world. Peru has about 1.4 million people over 15 years of age, according to data from the Department of Health (Minsa). Lima, Arequipa and Piura represent more cases due to a more modern lifestyle and access to processed products.
This disease is caused by elevated blood glucose (sugar). From its diagnosis, it is important for the patient to maintain adequate control because it could include other organs such as eyes, kidneys and brain. This is explained by Dr. Héctor Palacios, specialist in the Eye Clinic of Vision.
"Diabetes directly damages the eyes and affects various areas of this organ, but to a greater extent on the retina. Lesions in this layer cause diabetic retinopathy, an ocular disorder that occurs when high blood sugar levels cause damage to the blood vessels of the retina, "he said.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1% of the world's leading causes of vision are generated by diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy represents the initial symptoms of a moderate lesion in the blood vessels of the retina, micro-aneurysms, microhemorrhagia and even macula inflammation, the central part of the retina, which allows reading and viewing details. On the other hand, in more advanced cases, the body creates new vessels when trying to deliver blood. However, these are abnormal and do not provide the correct blood flow.
In addition, the disease can be generated by type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 is caused by a problem in the immune system, whereas Type 2 develops at any time in the patient's life and its occurrence is related to eating habits and lifestyle.
What to do?
Palacios explained that the treatment of this disease is an operation. There are currently two procedures: laser photocoagulation (which destroys abnormal retinal structures) and vitrectomy (a technique that removes the vitreous transparent gel that fills the ophthalmic cavity).
In addition, there are drugs that prevent the formation of abnormal blood vessels that are applied by intravitreal injections (inside the eye). If patients are screened on time and follow standard treatment guidelines, less than 5% of diabetics will experience severe vision loss.
Experts advise patients with diabetes to regularly check with the endocrinologist. He also said it is important to have frequent exams, according to what the expert suggests. Finally, she suggests choosing a balanced diet, exercise and avoiding alcoholic beverages. (Andes)