Friday , May 27 2022

Some vaccines protect lives. What are the 19 vaccines that don’t do?


Measles vaccines protect lives, protect against chickenpox disease for 10 to 20 years, and tinnitus vaccines can last for a decade or more.

Covid and Covid-19 need booster Six months later, the initial inoculation is trying to explain the Wall Street Journal’s article.

“An actual vaccine prevents the vaccine from infecting people even though they are infected with the virus,” says Rustam Anthea, a biology professor at Emory University who studies immune response. “But not all vaccines are ideal.”

The three levels of defense, he said, include complete protection against infection and transmission, protection against serious illnesses and transmission, or protection against only serious cases.

The efficacy depends on the extent of the immune response through a vaccine, the rate at which the antibodies are burnt, not the virus, or the tendency of the bacteria to change, and this type of infection.

The protective limit is the level of immune system that is sufficient to prevent a person from becoming ill. For each virus, it is different and the way it is determined is different.

“It’s basically the level of antibodies or the neutralization of antibodies per milliliter of blood,” said University of Oregon Health and Science professor Mark Sulfka.

The limit of 0.01 international units per milliliter was confirmed in tennis in 1942, when a pair of German researchers put themselves in the poison to test the results of animal studies.

“One of them gave Johnny Medicine his thighs and monitored how well he was doing,” said Dr. Salafka. “His companion, Johnny Medicine. None of them became ill.

A measles threshold was set in 1985, shortly after a university hostel outbreak revealed a blood donation campaign. Researchers examined the number of antibodies in the blood donations of students and uncovered 0.02 international units per ml as needed to prevent infection.

In these diseases, the severity of the vaccine response, combined with the rate of antibody destruction, produces a durable immune response: the measles antibodies are slowly suppressed. Tetanus antibodies break down rapidly, but the vaccine causes the body to produce much more produce than it needs, compensating for the fall.

“We are fortunate to have tetanus, diphtheria, measles and vaccine,” said Dr. Salafka. “We have uncovered a protective range. You are looking at the fall of antibodies over time, and if you exceed the safety threshold, you can determine the sustainability of the safety. With the coding, we No strangers. “

Historically, effective vaccines have used the most effective vaccines, viruses that essentially produce life-long immune immunity.

Measles and chicken vaccine are used to replicate viruses.

Non-repeating vaccines and proteins like vaccines (such as tetanus) do not last long, but their effectiveness can be improved by adding a helper-a substance that increases the response threshold.

Tetanus and hepatitis A vaccine use a helpful.

Cod-19 vaccines use and do not contain unused adenovirus from Johnson & Johnson and Astra Zeneca. Covid-19 vaccines with Pfizer and Moderna messenger RNA, which function differently, do not contain any viruses.

These matters are complex issues, viruses and bacteria that control the immune system’s ability to control the body’s immune response.

There is almost no change in the prevalence of measles, mumps, rubella and chicken, but at least eight different types of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, have been found, according to the British Medical Journal.

“It makes it a bit harder for vaccines to work,” said Dr. Salafka. “We’ve been looking for more and more targets over time. The flu is also undergoing mutations. In the case of the flu, every year we adapt to the new flu vaccine, which is better for the new flu.”

The influenza vaccine can provide protection for at least six months.

An effective vaccine for the fight against a virus that develops the complexity that it transforms, some hope the circulating force is immune to the possibility of defeating Code-19, but, according to Dr. Antia , Corona virus makes way to affect the body why they do. This is a challenge.

“The vaccine is highly unlikely to cause long-term immune response to many respiratory infections,” said Dr. Anthea. “Everyone’s immune response lasts for a short period of time. It depends on how quickly the virus changes. It depends on how quickly the immune system is reduced.”

Part of the problem is that coronaviruses transmit ly in the upper and lower respiratory tract.

“We have circulation and circulation in the body and in the body, but not on the nose surfaces,” said Dr. Salafka. “We can prevent severe illness because there are only antibodies in the respiratory respiratory tract.

But the risk of lower-grade upper respiratory tract infections can be maintained.

CoD-19 vaccines will be upgraded to fight a variety of viruses, and according to researchers at Imperial College London, the next generation of vaccines may also focus on the immune system and force on the nose and lung surfaces.

At the same time, another dose may be needed to prevent the virus.

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