– This is a historic moment. The long awaited malaria vaccine is a safe way to control the health and malaria of children’s ovaries. Using vaccines with the tools we already have for preventing malaria can save the lives of thousands of young people every year, Director-General Tedros Adenhom Gabrievs said when the WHO and the WHO malaria vaccine last week. Mosquirix recommended the use of children in urine. Africa.
Fewer and fewer people die of malaria
The number of malaria deaths worldwide has steadily decreased over the period 2000-2019, from 736,000 deaths in 2000 and 409,000 deaths in 9/11.
Photo: Brian Ongoro / TT
Malaria is one of the most serious and serious serious illnesses in the world, and also a very common one. More than 400,000 people die each year from malaria, and thirteen of them are children who are under the age of five. It is above all New Africa that is affected. More than 90% of all diseases and deaths occur on the continent.
Disease also has huge economic and social consequences. When children suffer from recurrent infections and blood loss, they miss school, and parents cannot work because they have to take care of their illness.
Deaths for Arne under age five
The proportion of deaths due to malaria under the age of five was 84% in 2000 and 67% in 2019.
Need more ways Prevention and treatment of malaria is therefore important. But the disease is caused by a parasite that is spread by mosquitoes, and it is a great challenge to develop the vaccine against the parasite against the virus.
– It’s a historic breakthrough that we’ve got a vaccine against a human parasitic disease that has been approved for use, says Patrick Duffy, who heads the malaria immunology lab and vaccines at the US National Institute of Health.
Patrick Duffy has extensive experience in malaria research.
– I started research 30 years ago at The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. That was when they started working with the vaccine, which has now been approved. So it has been a challenge for decades to get it to the finish line approved by the WHO, he says.
It may be hard to understand why it took so long to get the vaccine against malaria, when we received the vaccine against Kov-19 less than a year after the first disappearance of SARS-KOV-2.
– There are scientific reasons. But there are other reasons why it is so difficult to prepare a vaccine against an illness such as malaria. The group that needs it will be decided not to be able to pay the very high cost of a vaccine. Therefore, there are not many incentives to invest in research. That’s a problem, says Patrick Duffy.
Scientific challenges Depends on the malaria species. It goes through many different stages during its life cycle, and at times it is much more complicated and difficult to access than sars-cov-2.
– Malaria Compares to HIV How difficult it is and how long it takes to get a vaccine, says Andreas Bergman, Professor and Karolinska Institute of Malaria Specialist.
Malaria parasites are mutable and effective in order to escape the immune system and to kill the immune system, for example by hiding them in the blood cells.
– That is why repeated urines in Africa cause repeated infections. It takes a long time before they can get any exceptions. So developing a vaccine is almost a “mission impossible” from the very beginning. Vaccines should be essential to produce strong immune response to natural infections. That is a challenge, says Anders Bergman.
For viruses like -sars-cov-2, a dozen or a dozen can be targeted for a vaccine. Most corona vaccines target proteins. But the malaria parasite contains more than 5,000 genomic genes, says Patrick Duffy.
Each gene is a guide on what protein to look for. But finding out which proteins are included in the vaccine to provide effective protection against malaria is one of the major challenges for researchers.
– Parasite proteins are developed that do not provide much immune response, or they give the wrong type of immune system. There are parts of the protein that are important for the parasite, but those that are left behind for other organs to alter the immune system and ract from the part that the parasite actually uses and need, says Patrick Duffy.
Researchers are developing vaccine candidates Focusing on malaria focuses on different aspects of the parasite’s life cycle. Mosquirix, or RTS, S / AS01, the scientific name for the vaccine that WHO has now approved, is primarily intended to prevent serious infections of malaria in children, and to prevent the parasite in its shape. Target it when it enters the body. With saliva. A mosquito reaches the ear and liver. There it develops rapidly, and when the parasite stream enters the bloodstream after a week, it is the form in which the vaccine is not effective.
The vaccine must be administered in four medicines. Pilot studies from Ghana, Kenya and Malawi show that it has a 30% efficacy in protecting children from serious illnesses.
– Everyone has strong opinions about vaccines now, and it has been said that at least 50% of the efficacy is needed for a single vaccine to be approved. But if we look at the extent of the problem, efficiency of 30 or 40 percent can save a lot of lives, says Patrick Duffy.
Anders Bergman is not so impressed with the vaccine.
– They didn’t call it study. They want the fact that this is research, because otherwise they would need the informed consent of everyone else. Instead, they said we should now go with the vaccine and see how much it would cost. This means a moral issue, he says.
In areas where people suffer from malaria almost every time, more than 30 percent of the effects are needed, he says
In addition, it is difficult to show that vaccine has a significant effect on death. And this is what you want to reach, when over half a million children die each year in Africa, says Anders Bergman.
The vaccine may have limited protective effects on others or results.
– If a mother is taken to the health center and given a child for four health care vaccinations, and the child dies a year later due to malaria, or if the child has recurrent malaria attacks, Can be a reproductive field for vaccine distrust. off course. , Says Anders Bergman.
Patrick Duffy also agrees with Reese that there is a long way to go and a lot more work to be done before we can defeat malaria.
– This is a historic first step, but it is not enough. I think it will affect new inventions, treatments and vaccines. But it should not be 30 years until this time. It is unacceptable that a vaccine that rich countries need is available within a year, while the vaccine against malaria does not take 30 years to develop, he says.
Isobel Hadley-Kamptz: Finally the vaccine for malaria!
Malaria died on May 19 C ڪوte d’Ivoire when Uganda closed